///2019 Abstract Details
2019 Abstract Details2019-07-13T07:45:15-05:00

Chorioamnionitis Increases Production of Pro-Resolving Mediators in the Human Placenta.

Abstract Number: F3B-375
Abstract Type: Original Research

Mieke A Soens MD1 ; Xavier De La Rose PhD2; Kathryn J Gray MD, PhD3; Thomas McElrath MD, PhD4; Charles N Serhan PhD, Dsc.5

Introduction

Chorioamnionitis is a common cause of preterm birth and can trigger fetal inflammatory responses leading to adverse neonatal outcomes including brain injury. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in pregnancy reduce preterm births, the risk of low birth weight and perinatal death. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of omega-3 PUFA are unknown. Omega-3 PUFAs are precursors to novel classes of pro-resolving mediators (SPMs): resolvins, protectins and maresins. SPMs reduce and resolve inflammation in many inflammatory disorders in animal models, but the role of SPMs in chorioamnionitis is unknown. We hypothesize that modulating SPM pathways improves maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with chorioamnionitis. The aim of this study is to measure SPM levels and calculate the ratio of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (LM) to SPMs in placentas of patients with and without chorioamnionitis.

Methods

Placental tissues from 3 women with histological confirmation of chorioamnionitis and maternal fever at time of delivery were obtained. In addition tissues from 3 control cases matched for maternal age and mode of delivery were used. (LifeCodes Cohort) Tissues were extracted using solid phase extraction followed by analysis of SPMs using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. SPMs, pro-inflammatory LMs and pathway markers were identified using multiple reaction monitoring and the presence of ≥ 6 diagnostic ions for each mediator. The LM were then quantified using Analyst software.

Results

Placentas affected by chorioamnionitis had significantly higher levels (p≤0.05) of both pro-inflammatory LM and SPMs. Interestingly, the ratio of pro-inflammatory prostanoids to SPMs was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in placentas from patients with chorioamnionitis compared to normal placentas.

Conclusion

Chorioamnionitis can lead to an up-regulation of both pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving pathways. In this first study to characterize LM profiles in placentas of patients with chorioamnionitis we found an increased ratio of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins to proresolving mediators. Future studies will assess whether SPM pathways can be targeted to improve neonatal outcomes and whether omega-3 PUFA’s exert their protective actions through SPM biosynthesis.

References:

1. Anblagan et al.. Sci. Rep. 2016;6:37932

2. Middleton et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 11.Art No: CD003402

3.Serhan. Nature 2014



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